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The New International Greek Testament Commentary (12 Volumes)

This commentary series is established on the presupposition that the theological character of the New Testament documents calls for exegesis that is sensitive to theological themes as well as to the details of the historical, linguistic, and textual context. Such thorough exegetical work lies at the heart of these volumes, which contain detailed verse-by-verse commentary preceded by general comments on each section and subsection of the text.

An important aim of the NIGTC authors is to interact with the wealth of significant New Testament research published in recent articles and monographs. In this connection the authors make their own scholarly contributions to the ongoing study of the biblical text.

The text on which these commentaries are based is the UBS Greek New Testament, edited by Kurt Aland and others. While engaging the major questions of text and interpretation at a scholarly level, the authors keep in mind the needs of the beginning student of Greek as well as the pastor or layperson who may have studied the language at some time but does not now use it on a regular basis.

From the Foreword

Although there have been many series of commentaries on the English text of the New Testament in recent years, very few attempts have been made to cater particularly to the needs of students of the Greek text. The present initiative to fill this gap by the publication of the New International Greek Testament Commentary is very largely due to the vision of W. Ward Gasque, who was one of the original editors of the series. At a time when the study of Greek is being curtailed in many schools of theology, we hope that the NIGTC will demonstrate the continuing value of studying the Greek New Testament and will be an impetus in the revival of such study.

The volumes of the NIGTC are for students who want something less technical than a full-scale critical commentary. At the same time, the commentaries are intended to interact with modern scholarship and to make their own scholarly contribution to the study of the New Testament. The wealth of detailed study of the New Testament in articles and monographs continues without interruption, and the series is meant to harvest the results of this research in an easily accessible form. The commentaries include, therefore, extensive bibliographies and attempt to treat all important problems of history, exegesis, and interpretation that arise from the New Testament text.

One of the gains of recent scholarship has been the recognition of the primarily theological character of the books of the New Testament. The volumes of the NIGTC attempt to provide a theological understanding of the text, based on historical-critical-linguistic exegesis. It is not their primary aim to apply and expound the text for modern readers, although it is hoped that the exegesis will give some indication of the way in which the text should be expounded.

Within the limits set by the use of the English language, the series aims to be international in character, though the contributors have been chosen not primarily in order to achieve a spread between different countries but above all because of their specialized qualifications for their particular tasks.

The supreme aim of this series is to serve those who are engaged in the ministry of the Word of God and thus to glorify God’s name. Our prayer is that it may be found helpful in this task.

I. Howard Marshall
Donald A. Hagner

Honors Awarded to NIGTC to Date

  • Academy of Parish Clergy Top Ten Books of the Year (2001) 1 Corinthians
  • Christianity Today - Number 2 Critic's Choice for Commentaries (1993) Philippians
  • Evangelical Christian Publishers Association- Gold Medallion award for Commentaries (1983) Galatians
  • Academy of Parish Clergy Top Ten Books of the Year - Special Recognition (1997) Colossians & Philemon
  • Christianity Today - Number 3 Critics Choice for Commentaries (1994) Hebrews
  • Evangelical Christian Publishers Assocation - Gold Medallion finalist for Reference/Commentary (2001) 1 Corinthians

Additional Details

Series Editors: Donald A. Hagner, I. Howard Marshall

  • Donald A. Hagner is George Eldon Ladd Professor of New Testament at Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.
  • Howard Marshall is Professor emeritus of New Testament exegesis at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.

Publisher: Eerdmans

Electronic Books Included

The electronic edition of NIGTC features the first 12 volumes of the series. (This includes the volume on 2 Corinthians which was published in February 2005.) A description of each volume follows.

The Gospel of Mark - R. T. France

756 pages; 2002

Drawing on many years of Marcan studies, world-class scholar R. T. France has produced an exegetical commentary on the Greek text of Mark that does what the best of recent Greek commentaries have done but in France's own inimitable, reader-friendly way.

This work is a commentary on Mark itself, not a commentary on commentaries of Mark. It deals immediately and directly with matters that France himself regards as important. Working from his own translation of the Greek text and culling from helpful research into the world of first-century Palestine, France provides an extensive introduction to Mark's Gospel, followed by insightful section and verse commentary.

France sees the structure of Mark's Gospel as an effective “drama in three acts.” Act 1 takes up Jesus' public ministry in Galilee. Act 2 covers Jesus' journey to Jerusalem with his disciples. Act 3 focuses on Jesus' public ministry in Jerusalem, including his confrontation with the Jewish leaders, his explanatory discourse on the future, and his passion, death, and resurrection. France carefully unpacks for modern readers the two central themes of this powerful narrative of Jesus' life — the nature of Christ and the role of discipleship.

Supported by careful argumentation and impressive in its sensitivity to Mark's structure, context, and use of the Old Testament, France's study of the second Gospel is without peer.

Praise for the Print Edition

"This massive commentary on the Greek text of Mark comes from the pen of an eminent Oxford scholar and British evangelical…. The commentary itself is detailed and penetrating…. Of particular value are France’s detailed comments on the text of Mark, his extensive bibliography, and his judicious interpretation of Mark’s theology."
—The Bible Today

About the Author

R. T. France recently retired as principal of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford, and as rector of seven Anglican parishes. Among his many other books are Jesus and the Old Testament, The Evidence for Jesus, Matthew: Evangelist and Teacher, the Tyndale New Testament Commentaries volume on Matthew, and the Doubleday Bible Commentary volume on Mark. He is also coeditor of The New Bible Commentary: 21st-Century Edition.

The Gospel of Luke - I. Howard Marshall

928 pages; 1978

In this acclaimed commentary—the first in the English language on the Greek text of Luke since those of J. M. Creed in 1930 and H. K. Luce in 1933—renowned New Testament scholar I. Howard Marshall calls special attention to the theological message of Luke the Evangelist. His primary purpose is to exegete the text as it was written by Luke, so that the distinctiveness of Luke's Gospel may be seen.

While basing his commentary on the UBS Greek New Testament, Marshall also refers to many variant readings that are significant in this study. He provides information on the meaning of the Greek words used by Luke and shows which words and constructions occur frequently and are therefore characteristic of his style. It is by this meticulous analysis of the Greek that Luke's theological intentions can be objectively determined.

Widely considered to be one of the best commentaries on Luke currently available, Marshall's work provides the tools needed for the scholarly study of this Gospel—meeting in particular the needs of students of the Greek text—describes the contemporary state of Lucan research, and makes its own important contributions to the understanding of Luke.

Praise for the Print Edition

"I. Howard Marshall's splendid work takes its place as the best commentary on the Gospel of Luke in English.... His careful, sane scholarship and his respect for biblical authority provide a model for evangelical scholarship, indeed for scholars generally, in the study of the Synoptic Gospels."
—Christianity Today

"This is without question the best commentary in English on the Greek text of Luke. It is a major invasion into a mine-infested area by a major British scholar. An astonishing achievement...It puts Marshall firmly among the forefront of world scholars on St. Luke."
—Church Times

"Students of the Greek text will indeed find this volume indispensable...It stands alone in the field as a compendium of accessible current research on Luke's usage of Greek."

About the Author

I. Howard Marshall is professor of New Testament exegesis at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. He is a series editor of The New International Greek Testament Commentary and has also served in editorial roles for The Book of Acts in Its First-Century Setting and the Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Among his many scholarly books and commentaries are the volume
on the Epistles of John in the New International Commentary on the New Testament series, Luke: Theologian and Historian, and I Believe in the Historical Jesus.


The First Epistle to the Corinthians - Anthony C. Thiselton

1479 pages; 2000

This superb volume in the New International Greek Testament Commentary series provides the most detailed, definitive, and distinctive commentary on 1 Corinthians available in English to date.

One of the world’s most respected Christian theologians, Anthony Thiselton here provides in-depth discussion of the language of 1 Corinthians, presents his own careful translation of the Greek, traces the main issues of interpretation from the church fathers to the present, and highlights topics of theological, ethical, and sociohistorical interest today, including ethics and “rights,” marriage, divorce and remarriage, “headship,” gender, prophecy, and many others.

No other commentary on 1 Corinthians embodies the wealth and depth of detail presented in Thiselton’s work, which takes account of nearly all scholarly research on 1 Corinthians and incorporates substantial bibliographies throughout. In his commentary Thiselton indeed addresses virtually every question that thoughtful, serious readers—scholars, students, pastors, teachers—may wish to ask of or about the text of 1 Corinthians. His work truly offers a fresh, comprehensive, and original contribution to our understanding of this major epistle and its contemporary relevance.

Awards for the Print Edition

  • Academy of Parish Clergy Top Ten Books of the Year - Number 9 (2001)
  • Evangelical Christian Publishers Assocation - Gold Medallion finalist for Reference/Commentary (2001)

Praise for the Print Edition

"Every New Testament book except 1 Corinthians has had at least one major English-language commentary on its Greek text published in recent years. For 1 Corinthians the last such commentary was Robertson and Plummer's revised edition in 1914! Now this gap has been amply filled by one of the most detailed, widely ranging, and exegetically compelling commentaries ever written on any book in the Bible. Scholars, pastors, and students alike are all now massively indebted to Tony Thiselton for this prodigious work."
—Craig L. Blomberg, Denver Seminary

"A prodigious commentary on First Corinthians which will be welcomed by students, scholars, and pastors alike.... A fine scholarly achievement. The substantial bibliographies, the excursuses incorporating ancient as well as the most recent scholarly discussion, and the comprehensive indices at the end make the volume not only a welcome addition to the literature on First Corinthians, but also a useful resource for the study of Pauline theology."
—Evangelical Review of Theology

About the Author

Anthony C. Thiselton is Emeritus Professor of Christian theology in Residence at the University of Nottingham in England.


The Second Epistle to the Corinthians - Murray J. Harris

1072 pages; 2005

The reputation of the NIGTC series is so outstanding that the appearance of each new volume is noteworthy. This book on 2 Corinthians is nmo exception. Master New Testament exegete Murray J. Harris has produced a splendid commentary that analyzes the Greek text verse by verse against the backdrop of Paul's tumultuous relations with his converts at Corinth.

Believing that Scripture cannot be understood theologically unless it has first been understood grammatically, Harris provides a careful, thoroughgoing reading of the text of 2 Corinthians, engaging competing exegetical options along the way. This background work allows Harris then to discuss clearly the theology of 2 Corinthians, showing the relevance of Paul's teaching to Christian living and church ministry. Other notable features of the book include a comprehensive introduction to 2 Corinthians, an expanded paraphrase of the letter that conveniently shows Harris's decisions on exegetical issues and indicates the flow of Paul's argument, a chronology of the relation of Paul, Timothy, and Titus to the Corinthian church, and an excursus on Paul's "affliction in Asia" and its influence on his outlook and theology.

About the Author

Murray J. Harris is professor emeritus of New Testament exegesis and theology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois.


The Epistle to the Galatians - F. F. Bruce

325 pages; 1982

Paul's letter to the churches of Galatia was for many years a document of special interest and study for renowned New Testament scholar F. F. Bruce. This excellent volume in the New International Greek Testament Commentary series contains Bruce's mature work on this important early epistle.

Through phrase-by-phrase exegesis of the Greek text, consistent awareness of the historical and geographical context, and balanced dialogue with virtually every scholar who has ever written on the subject, Bruce successfully bridges the hermeneutical gap and makes the text of Galatians come alive for both scholars and students today. Primarily theological in character, this commentary places special emphasis throughout on Paul's insistence on justification before God by faith apart from works of the law, and on Paul's presentation of the Spirit as the principle of the new life in Christ.

Award for the Print Edition

Evangelical Christian Publishers Assocation - Gold Medallion award for Commentaries (1983)

Praise for the Print Edition

"This commentary is worth a careful and complete reading. . . . Lucid, balanced, and interesting! Although clear and provocative, Bruce has not compromised the text, oversimplified the issues, or dodged the problems with which this letter bristles. Moreover, he has placed the rich fare of modern scholarship on a shelf within reach of the nonspecialist. Quite an achievement."

"Massive learning is combined with an easy style. Students who work carefully through this commentary alongside the Greek New Testament will learn much."

—The Expository Times

"Those who study the Greek text of Galatians may avail themselves of this excellent and carefully written tool. Bruce's commentary offers readers both clarity and completeness in exegetical and theological interpretation. The usefulness of this informative work when studying Galatians is great."
—Catholic Biblical Quarterly

About the Author

F.F. Bruce (1910—1990) was Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis at the University of Manchester, England. He wrote more than forty commentaries and other widely used books, including Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free, The Acts of the Apostles, The Gospel of John, and The Message of the New Testament. He served as general editor of The New International Commentary on the New Testament from 1962 to 1990.


The Epistle to the Philippians - Peter T. O'Brien

638 pages; 1991

Paul's letter to the Philippians has been a favorite of Christians for almost two thousand years. Its themes—joy and fellowship, love and suffering, humility and perseverance—strike responsive chords in many hearts, and the epistle\injunctions to stand firm for the gospel and to remain united in love are as relevant to believers today as they were to the Philippians of Paul's day.

In this commentary Peter T. O'Brien presents a rich exposition Philippians. Based on careful historical-critical-linguistic of exegesis of the Greek text, O'Brien's work is fundamentally theological and makes available to the serious student of the New Testament the fruits of recent scholarship. O'Brien examines each paragraph of the text structurally, thematically, and exegetically to determine its place within the flow of the letter's argument and in the light of Paul's purposes for writing the epistle. Topics given particular attention include background information on the city of Philippi, the letter's authorship and date and place of writing, the unity and integrity of the letter in the light of recent structural studies, the nature of Paul's opponents and the question of the Judaizers, and the place and function of the Christological "hymn" (2:5-11) within the letter.

Award for the Print Edition

Christianity Today - Number 2 Critic's Choice for Commentaries (1993)

Praise for the Print Edition

"There can be no doubt that O'Brien's commentary on Philippians is the best available in English for careful detailed exegesis of the Greek text and judicious sifting of the interpretations of other scholars. His labors have put students of this letter in his debt for the invaluable resource he has supplied to aid their own close reading of the text."
—Journal of Biblical Literature

"This is a model commentary, carefully argued, well written, with sane judgments. O'Brien is well aware of the vast literature on this letter and interacts with it carefully; yet he has struck his own course. This is a superb guide to understanding both Paul and Philippians."
—Gordon D. Fee

"The book is a well written, in-depth exegetical commentary on the epistle. The author's penchant for a thorough elucidation of the text, including a diligent presentation of the various viewpoints on different issues, provides an excellent foundation for understanding the epistle...Overall, O'Brien's work is a valuable contribution and deserves wide circulation. The serious student will find it a most helpful resource."
—The Master's Seminary Journal 3:2, Fall 1992, pp. 230-31, Irvin A. Busenitz, Professor of Bible Exposition and Old Testament

About the Author

Peter T. O'Brien is vice principal and head of the New Testament Department at Moore Theological College in Newtown, New South Wales, Australia. An ordained minister in the Anglican Church of Australia, he is the author of Introductory Thanksgiving in the Letters of Paul and of the volume on Colossians and Philemon in the Word Biblical Commentary series.


The Epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon - James D. G. Dunn

405 pages; 1996

Paul's Epistle to the Colossians merits detailed study for at least two reasons. First, it provides an unexpectedly interesting window into the character of Christianity in Asia Minor in the second half of the first century. With the information it gives about the religious tensions within which emergent Christianity was caught up, not least those between Christianity and diaspora Judaism, we begin to gain more insight into the influences and factors that shaped the transition from apostolic to subapostolic Christianity in the region.

Second, Colossians represents a crucial stage in the development of Pauline theology itself. Whether it was written at the end of Paul's life or soon after his death, it indicates how Pauline theology retained its own vital character and did not die with Paul.

In this volume in the celebrated New International Greek Testament Commentary, James D. G. Dunn, author of numerous well-received works on the historical origin and theological interpretation of the New Testament, provides detailed expositions of the text of Paul's letters to the Colossians and to Philemon.

Dunn examines each of these letters within the context of the Jewish and Hellenistic cultures in the first century, and discusses the place of Colossians and Philemon in the relationship between the Pauline mission and the early churches that received these letters. Particular stress is also placed on the role of faith in Jesus Christ within and over against Judaism and on the counsel of these two important letters with regard to the shaping of human relationships in the community of faith.

Award for the Print Edition

Academy of Parish Clergy Top Ten Books of the Year - Special Recognition (1997)

Praise for the Print Edition

"Even if he did not agree with all of the exegetical opinions expressed, J. B. Lightfoot would undoubtedly be proud of his indirect association with this sterling commentary by the Lightfoot Professor at Durham, which gives further evidence of James D.G. Dunn's characteristic attention to detail, mastery of ancient parallels and modern scholarship, and grasp of theological issues."
—Murray J. Harris, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School

"Retaining his close attention to detail and immense sweep of the literature, Professor Dunn provides a full discussion of critical and historical issues in the introductions to the two letters and his verse by verse comment. Useful for the minister as well as the scholar."
—Expository Times

"James D. G. Dunn's well-known and formidable exegetical skills are amply displayed in his new commentary on Colossians and Philemon for the New International Greek Testament Commentary Series. On both these texts Dunn offers balanced and reasonable readings that will certainly become essential moments in scholarly discussion of these texts…. A wonderful exegetical resource for at least two reasons: first, Dunn offers persuasive and plausible readings of these texts, and, second, he provides a wealth of information on scholarly debate on these texts…. Overall this is a stunningly successful commentary. Once again, Dunn shows that he is an instructive and persuasive reader of biblical texts."
—Review of Biblical Literature, July 2000, Lewis R. Donelson, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary

"The maturity and depth of Dunn's scholarship result in a commentary that is balanced and rich but not overwhelming in detail. The reader would have to look hard to identify someone better suited to comment on Colossians and Philemon and to find scholarship that is so consistently good. What in particular makes this volume worthwhile is the balance it strikes between depth and approachability: the commentary has the weightiness of a reference volume but its writing has a clarity and economy that engages the reader. It is one of the most readable commentaries around."

About the Author

James D. G. Dunn is the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity at the University of Durham, England. He is the author of numerous works in the field of New Testament studies, including commentaries on Galatians and Romans and the books Christian Liberty: A New Testament Perspective and (with Alan M. Suggate) The Justice of God: A Fresh Look at the Old Doctrine of Justification by Faith.


The Epistles to the Thessalonians - Charles A. Wanamaker

344 pages; 1990

The letters of Paul to the newly founded Christian community at Thessalonica hold a special place within the Christian tradition as possibly the earliest extant Christian writings. They are also of special interest not only for their theological value but for their sociological context. Among the communities established by Paul, the church at Thessalonica appears to have been the only one to have suffered serious external oppression. These two important epistles, then, speak uniquely to contemporary Christians living in a society often ideologically, if not politically, opposed to Christian faith.

In this innovative commentary Charles A. Wanamaker incorporates what may he called a social science approach to the study of 1 and 2 Thessalonians, taking into full account the social context that gave rise to Paul's correspondence. While Wanamaker in no way ignores traditional historical-critical, linguistic, literary, and theological approaches to writing a commentary—in fact, at several points he makes a significant contribution to the questions raised by traditional exegesis—at the same time he goes beyond previous commentaries on the Thessalonian correspondence by taking seriously the social dimensions both of Christianity at Thessalonica and of the texts of 1 and 2 Thessalonians themselves. In blending traditional exegetical methods with this newer approach, Wanamaker seeks to understand Pauline Christianity at Thessalonica as a socio-religious movement in the first-century Greco-Roman world and attempts to grasp the social character and functions of Paul's letters within this context.

A significant and original addition to the literature on 1 and 2 Thessalonians, this commentary will be valuable to scholars, pastors, and students alike.

Praise for the Print Edition

"This volume should find a secure place on the shelves of Pauline scholars, particularly those concerned about all-too-neglected Thessalonian studies...Readers, whether ministerial or professional, will find their reading of 1 and 2 Thessalonians greatly enhanced."
—Journal of Biblical Literature

"Unique in its approach...Wanamaker has written a commentary worthy of consideration. His ground-breaking methodology will be a topic of debate for some time to come."

"C. A. Wanamaker's valuable exegesis of the Greek text offers a breakthrough by incorporating insights from rhetorical criticism...Wanamaker offers a novel, if unconvincing, case for reading our 2 Thessalonians as Paul's first letter to the church; his exegesis is particularly valuable for those who can handle Greek."
—Biblical Studies Bulletin, Vol 15, Michael B. Thompson

About the Author

Charles A. Wanamaker is senior lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies and director of postgraduate studies at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. He received his doctorate in New Testament studies at the University of Durham under C. K. Barrett.


The Pastoral Epistles - George W. Knight III

548 pages; 1992

This is a thorough, full-scale English commentary on the Greek text of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus. While author George W. Knight gives careful attention to the comments of previous interpreters of the text, both ancient and modern, his emphasis is on exegesis of the Greek text itself and on the flow of the argument in each of these three Epistles.

Besides providing a detailed look at the meanings and interrelationships of the Greek words as they appear in each context, Knight's commentary includes an introduction that treats at length the question of authorship (he argues for Pauline authorship and proposes, on the basis of stylistic features, that Luke might have been the amanuensis for the Pastoral Epistles), the historical background of these letters, and the personalities and circumstances of the recipients.

Knight also provides two special excursuses: the first gathers together the information in the Pastorals and elsewhere in the New Testament on early church offices and leaders; the other excursus examines the motivations for conduct in Titus 2:1-10 with a view to their applicability to present-day situations.

Praise for the Print Edition

"Knight is to he congratulated for his significant contribution to New Testament study. An excellent supplement and balance to the Dibelius-Conzelmann commentary, Knight's Pastoral Epistles will well serve teachers of the Greek text. And for preachers whose Greek is serviceable, Knight's commentary is arguably the one to turn to first."
—Restoration Quarterly

"An exegetical handbook to the Pastoral Epistles...Well-written, dear, and concise...this commentary offers an excellent summary of modern scholarship on the Pastorals in addition to giving a sound and helpful discussion of the text by a seasoned scholar. It deserves to be on the reference shelf of every serious pastor and student."

"Following the style of this fine series, Knight's commentary is most valuable for its detailed analysis of the Greek text of the epistles."
—The Bible Today

About the Author

George W. Knight III is a teacher at Matthews Orthodox Presbyterian Church in Matthews, North Carolina, and adjunct professor of New Testament at Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary's Charlotte Extension. His other published works include The Faithful Sayings in the Pastoral Epistles and The Role Relationship of Men and Women.


The Epistle to the Hebrews - Paul Ellingworth

862 pages; 1993

The study of the Epistle to the Hebrews has traditionally been hampered by a number of factors. For example, for most of Christian history, the attribution of Hebrews to Paul has made it more difficult for readers to hear this epistle's distinctive voice. Among Gentile Christians, it has also been wrongly assumed that Hebrews is of interest only to Jews. And it has sometimes been thought that Hebrews represents a compromise or halfway stage between Judaism and Christianity, in contrast with the pure message of the Gospels and the radical Christianity of Paul. These and other factors have tended to combine to give Hebrews an undeserved reputation for obscurity.

This excellent commentary by Paul Ellingworth adeptly removes such barriers to the meaning of Hebrews, revealing the value of this complex but immensely important New Testament epistle for all readers, past and present. Ellingworth begins with a detailed study of the Greek text before working outward to consider the wider context, linguistic questions, and the relation of Hebrews to other early Christian writings and to the Old Testament. Nonbiblical writings such as Philo and the Dead Sea Scrolls, though less directly related to Hebrews, are considered where appropriate.

Unveiling the discourse structure of this carefully written letter, Ellingworth's commentary helps make coherent sense of the complexities of Hebrews. As a result of his exhaustive study, Ellingworth finds Hebrews to be primarily a pastoral, not a polemical, writing. Showing how Hebrews beautifully emphasizes the supremacy of Christ, Ellingworth concludes that the essential purpose of the epistle—which maintains the continuity of God's people before and after Christ—is to encourage readers to base their lives on nothing other and nothing less than Jesus.

Award for the Print Edition

Christianity Today - Number 3 Critics Choice for Commentaries (1994)

Praise for the Print Edition

"A gold mine of information for any New Testament scholar who has an interest in Hebrews...A superb volume."

"Ellingworth offers a thorough survey of scholarship on introductory issues and informed, theologically sensitive commentary on the Greek text of Hebrews."
—The Bible Today

"An ornament to The New International Greek Testament Commentary...A refreshing challenge to all who take the Greek text seriously."

—Reformed Theological Review

"The commentary contributes to an understanding of the epistle, especially from the technical side...[The author] directs considerable attention to the matters of textual variants, manuscript evidence, and extra-biblical documents, with a resultant interruption of the flow of both text and context. The work's contribution can be significant, but probably only to more serious students."

—The Master's Seminary Journal 5:1, Spring 1994, p. 103, Irvin A. Busenitz, Professor of Bible Exposition and Old Testament

About the Author

Paul Ellingworth is translation consultant for the United Bible Societies in the United Kingdom and an honorary lecturer in New Testament at the University of Aberdeen. He is also the coauthor of A Translator's Handbook on the Letter to the Hebrews and author of the volume on Hebrews in the Epworth Commentaries series.


The Epistle of James - Peter H. Davids

264 pages; 1982

The Epistle of James has long languished in comparative neglect while its more famous sister letters in the Pauline corpus enjoyed the limelight of New Testament research. Recently, however, new interest in the Epistle of James has pointed scholarly attention once more at some of the still-to-be-answered questions raised by this important New Testament book.

This widely acclaimed commentary by Peter H. Davids interacts freely with both the more recent and the older literature on James, German and French works. At the same time, Davidss own penetrating insights themselves spark fresh debate on the composition, purpose, and meaning of the text of James.

In an extensive introduction Davids considers questions concerning authorship, date of composition, form and structure, and the language and style of the text. He also explores seven key theological themes in James: suffering/testing; eschatology; Christology; poverty piety; the relation of law, grace, and faith; wisdom; and prayer.

The commentary proper exhibits careful exegesis and a wealth of insight into the meaning of the text for its original audience as well as for the church today. Davids is well acquainted with the relevant Hellenistic, Jewish, and early Christian literature and uses it frequently to point out parallels and to clarify the meaning of the text. Davids's work also includes several helpful tables, charts, and one of the most comprehensive bibliographies on James available anywhere.

Praise for the Print Edition

"A major contribution to our understanding of James...Davids has skillfully used contemporary critical and exegetical tools to produce a first-rate commentary."
—Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

"Davids's commentary is a mine of information and is characterized by careful exegetical method.... It deserves critical attention."
—Journal of Biblical Literature

"Davids presents a conservative yet provocative look at the Epistle of James...The many well-balanced discussions are strengthened by good summaries and frequent parallels to ancient literature...A fine exegetical piece."

About the Author

Peter H. Davids is On-Site Study Center Director at Schloss Mittersill in Austria. He is also the author of the volume on I Peter in the New International Commentary on the New Testament series.


The Book of Revelation - G. K. Beale

1309 pages; 1998

This monumental new study of the book of Revelation will be especially helpful to scholars, pastors, students, and others seriously interested in interpreting the Apocalypse for the benefit of the church. Too often Revelation is viewed as a book only about the future. As G. K. Beale shows, however, Revelation is nor merely a futurology but a book about how the church should live for the glory of God throughout the ages—including our own.

Engaging important questions concerning the interpretation of Revelation in scholarship today, as well interacting with the various viewpoints scholars hold on these issues, Beale's work makes a major contribution in the much-debated area of how the Old Testament is used in the Apocalypse. Approaching Revelation in terms of its own historical background and literary character, Beale argues convincingly that John's use of Old Testament allusions—and the way the Jewish exegetical tradition interpreted these same allusions—provides the key for unlocking the meaning of Revelation's many obscure metaphors. In the course of Beale's careful verse-by-verse exegesis, which also untangles the logical flow of John's thought as it develops from chapter to chapter, it becomes clear that Revelation's challenging pictures are best understood net by apparent technological and contemporary parallels in the twentieth century but by Old Testament and Jewish parallels from the distant past.

Praise for the Print Edition

"This is an incredibly learned study, a magisterial commentary on one of the most difficult hooks in the Bible. There has never been a deeper probing of the Old Testament allusions in the Apocalypse, nor a better presentation of the idealist interpretation. This work will he essential for all scholars and students of the book of Revelation for years to come."
—Grant Osborne, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School

"This volume will undoubtedly take its place as a standard work to be considered in responsible study of Revelation."
— M. Eugene Boring, Brite Divinity School, Texas Christian University

"This long-awaited commentary is a magnificent achievement and will be an invaluable guide and resource for all future study of Revelation. Beale's particular emphasis on interpreting the text by reference to the Old Testament Scriptures and Jewish exegetical traditions is one that the text itself invites, while the orientation to theological reflection is also very welcome in a commentary on this profoundly theological text."
—Richard Baukham, University of St. Andrews

"Beale has an unrivaled knowledge of Revelation and its Jewish background. His work will be invaluable both to scholars and students who want a thorough treatment of the textual and critical problems and to pastors and laypeople who want to know what
Revelation meant—and means—in its own terms."
—J. P. M. Sweet, Cambridge University

About the Author

G. K. Beale is the Kenneth T. Wessner Chair of Biblical Studies at Wheaton College Graduate School. He is also the editor of The Right Doctrine from the Wrong Text? Essays on the Use of the Old Testament in the New and the author of The Use of Daniel in Jewish Apocalyptic Literature and in the Revelation of St. John and John's Use of the Old Testament in Revelation.


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